Juliet Saltiel and Ruben Fridman

  • Photo taken in:
    Country name at time of photo:
    Bulgaria, 1878-1944
    Country name today:

This is me with my brother Ruben Yosif Fridman. The photo was taken in the early 1940s in Sofia.

My elder brother's name was Ruben. He was born in Sofia in 1923 and died in Israel in 1999. He was an electrician. From his wife Ester (nee Sachi), he had three children: Yosif, Sima and Dafna. They live in Haifa in Israel. His wife was a housewife and now she is a pensioner. As far as I know it was Ruben who took care of our mother until she died.

I remember that before and during the Law for Protection of the Nation my family lived at different addresses. We lived in a rented flat in Ruse, after that - in Sofia, where we changed our addresses very often. I remember that in my early childhood we lived in Beli Iskar Str. near the railway station. After that we moved to live in Tetevenska Str. Then we changed our address to a two-storey house in Skobelev Blvd. We lived in two rented rooms in the attic. We had electricity, running water and even a radio. I remember we loved listening to radio Sofia.

I remember the period of the Law for Protection of the Nation very well. When we went out we had to wear these disgraceful yellow stars; we got insulted and even humiliated by random people in the streets whom we even didn't know. We had an obligatory curfew hour; besides, Jews were banned from entering certain shops, restaurants, theaters and so on. There was an invariable sign at these places: ‘Forbidden for Jews’. But what is more - the Jews were not allowed to keep running their private pharmacies, most of them - situated in Sofia's center, so Bulgarians got an advantage of taking control over the pharmacies. Of course, there were restrictions for tradesmen of Jewish origin as well (and the Jews were then predominantly retailers). Students of Jewish origin could not continue their education at universities. There was also one-off tax, for example if one had a bank account of 100,000 leva 30 per cent or 40 per cent of that sum simply got confiscated.

Interview details

Interviewee: Juliet Saltiel
Patricia Nikolova
Month of interview:
Year of interview:
Sofia, Bulgaria


Ruben Fridman
Year of birth:
City of birth:
Country name at time of birth:
Year of death:
City of death:
Country of death:
after WW II
before WW II:
Manual laborer
after WW II:
Working in natural and technical sciences

Other Person

Juliet Saltiel
Year of birth:
City of birth:
Slatina Village
Country name at time of birth:
after WW II:
Retail clerk
  • Previous family name: 
    Year of changing: 
    Reason for changing: 

Additional Information

Also interviewed by:
Date of interview:

More photos from this country

The cover of Victor Baruh's book 'Beyond the Law'
Nissim and David Kohenov with students of the Bulgarian school  'Naycho Tsanov'
Buko Pizanti with a friend
The engagement photo of Yosif and Sarina Sabita
Anna Danon's father Haim Iakov with his friend Buko Manon

Read more biographies from this country

glqxz9283 sfy39587stf02 mnesdcuix8
glqxz9283 sfy39587stf03 mnesdcuix8